Category Archives: Politics

Spring books preview: politics and policy

We’re excited about the books we’ll be publishing this spring—and we’re pleased to start off the new year with a series of posts that highlight our forthcoming titles. Be sure to check out the online edition of JHUP’s entire Spring 2016 catalog, and remember that promo code “HDPD” gets you a 30% discount on all pre-publication orders. Today we feature spring books on policy and politics; click on the title to read more about the book or to place an order:


taylorJust and Lasting Change
When Communities Own Their Futures
second edition
Daniel C. Taylor and Carl E. Taylor


diamondAuthoritarianism Goes Global
The Challenge to Democracy
edited by Larry Diamond, Marc F. Plattner, and Christopher Walker


rojeckiAmerica and the Politics of Insecurity
Andrew Rojecki


sovacoolFact and Fiction in Global Energy Policy
Fifteen Contentious Questions
Benjamin K. Sovacool, Marilyn A. Brown, and Scott V. Valentine


whiteheadIlliberal Practices
Territorial Variance within Large Federal Democracies
edited by Jacqueline Behrend and Laurence Whitehead


Use discount code “HDPD” to receive a 30% discount on pre-publication orders for JHUP’s spring 2016 titles.
To order, click on the book titles above or call 800-537-5487.

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Filed under Current Affairs, Politics, Public Health, Publishing News

Religion, politics, and Charlie Sheen

By Kathryn Marguy

Of all the celebratory hullabaloo surrounding the release of Adele’s latest album, my favorite has to be Saturday Night Live’s “A Thanksgiving Miracle” sketch. The scene opens with a family gathered around the table for Thanksgiving. As they pass around the sweet potato casserole, various members of the family start bleating close-minded, occasionally racist commentary about current events. As tensions rise, a young girl, the smallest guest at the table, slowly rises and walks to the nearby stereo to blast Adele’s single, “Hello.” The adults immediately abandon their griping and sing along in synchrony. In typical SNL fashion, the scene unravels into absurdity, and it is glorious and I love it.

But (also in typical SNL fashion) the sketch raises an issue that is all too real: how is one to cope with the strong, often incorrect commentary of those you’re spending Thanksgiving with? Without Adele’s sultry siren’s call, how can you successfully traverse a conversation with your family’s Archie Bunker?

The answer? Cold, hard facts.

That’s where America’s Oldest University Press comes in. We’ve compiled a list of six books that will help you drop some knowledge on those Thanksgiving guests who might need an extra nudge toward reality. Within the pages of these books are many quotable quips to use in discussion. They’d also make great presents for those seeking more answers (bonus: they’re easy to wrap). We can’t guarantee these books will smooth a kerfuffle, but it’s always a good idea to go into a situation prepared with evidence-based reasoning. Plus, you can use the code “HDPD” for 30% off these enlightening texts!

Already on the road? You’ll be happy to know all of these books are available in an electronic format for on-the-go reading.

The holiday season is upon us, curious readers. Spread good cheer and a little bit of knowledge this year.


callahanThe Science of Mom, by Alice Callahan, PhD

It seems everyone has an opinion about proper parenting (this includes those with and without children). Whether you face discussions of co-sleeping, baby’s nutrition, or the absurdly volatile matter of immunizations, Dr. Alice Callahan has you covered.


formisano15Plutocracy in America, by Ronald P. Formisano

This is a big one. Dr. Formisano’s data-driven book gets to the root of inequality in America. After reading its easy-to-digest chapters, you’ll be able to share relevant statistics and information about legislation without batting an eye as you ladle gravy over your potatoes.


paulImmunity, by William Paul

Let’s face it, the topic of Charlie Sheen is ripe for conversation, no matter how dignified your dinner guests. It’s easy to caricature his situation to make assumptions about HIV. Shut down erroneous chatter with a comprehensive look at immunology from the man who led innovation in the field for the past three decades.


smithDiversity’s Promise for Higher Education, second edition,
by Daryl G. Smith

Beyond flashy headlines and dramatic images, the lack of diversity in higher education identifies a problem not with football players or student protesters, but with institutional leadership. Dr. Daryl Smith provides tangible solutions to the growing issues with diversity on college campuses.


prasadEnding Medical Reversal,
by Vinayak K. Prasad, MD, MPH, and Adam S. Cifu, MD

We’d like to think new treatment and tests represent advances in the field of medicine. But what happens when doctors start using a medication, procedure, or diagnostic tool without a robust evidence base? Medical reversal, that’s what. Drs. Prasad and Cifu help readers discern best medical practices based on facts, not Cousin Brittney’s assurances.


dowdGroundless, by Gregory Dowd

The elephant at every Thanksgiving table is the genocide of Native Americans that shortly followed the first Thanksgiving. Groundless looks at rumors and tall tales that pervaded early-American culture, many of which cast aspersions on Native Americans. In this fascinating book, historian Gregory Dowd refutes numerous folk stories, including the legend that the English gave smallpox blankets to Powhatan’s people.


Kathryn Marguy (@pubkat) is a publicist at Johns Hopkins University Press.

 

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Filed under Cultural Studies, Current Affairs, Education, For Everyone, History, Holidays, Politics, Public Health, Publishing News, University Presses

Is it “propaganda” if it advocates for something you want?

Guest post by Jonathan Auerbach

auerbachBecause I recently coedited a collection of essays on the subject of propaganda, I sometimes get approached by journalists asking me to weigh in on current events. How effective is Putin’s “propaganda” against the West in promoting the separatist movement in Ukraine? How best to counteract gruesome ISIS videos, aimed to entice recruits to jihad, but often described in shorthand as “propaganda”? And lately my inbox has been bombarded with emails urging me to “keep the pressure on” by fighting against the vile “propaganda” of warmongers in Congress who would reject the international deal to curb Iran’s nuclear capabilities.

In all of these cases, “propaganda” is assumed to be a self-evident concept, inherently false and sinister, against which urgent countermeasures and messages (but certainly nothing we would want to call propaganda!) need to be taken. If we step back a minute and try to put this matter in historical perspective, certain insights come into focus.

A century ago, right at the start of World War I, the term was frequently use to refer to any sort of mass advocacy, such as “propaganda” for suffrage or “propaganda” for conservation. In these instances, propaganda in both meaning and practice simply referred to efforts designed to sway public opinions and feelings on a large scale. During and immediately following the war, the meaning and practice of such mass persuasion took on an increasingly negative cast, leading Progressive political commentator Walter Lippmann in 1919 to ominously announce a crisis in democracy triggered by this unregulated “manufacture of consent.”

But what’s the difference between coercion and persuasion, especially in a democracy that relies on a vibrant public sphere and the free flow of information to debate and contest policies and ideas? Who is in charge of such information dissemination? What’s the difference between educating citizens, directing them, and indoctrinating them? How to distinguish among teaching, preaching, and selling, especially when your nation is at war and seeks to boost patriotic morale? Left to their own devices, how can citizens be trusted to sort through such an overwhelming avalanche of factoids and truthiness (as Stephen Colbert put it) to arrive at some rational conclusions about the world we live in? These are the key questions Progressive intellectuals, reformers, and politicians such as Lippmann, John Dewey, Julia Lathrop, and Woodrow Wilson grappled with a century ago, not to mention public relations gurus like Edward Bernays who were intent on engineering and managing the tastes and spending habits of citizen-consumers.

Clearly, these troubling questions remain very much with us today. My new Johns Hopkins University book, Weapons of Democracy: Propaganda, Progressivism, and American Public Opinion, seeks to shed light on our current state of affairs by tracing the changing face and fate of American public opinion in the early decades of the twentieth century as they unfolded before, during, and soon after World War I. By closely looking at Progressive era propaganda in thought and practice, including the inevitable entanglements between social reform and social control that emerged during this period, we put ourselves in a better position to understand how the United States continues to deploy its current weapons of democracy at home and around the globe.

Jonathan Auerbach is a professor of English at the University of Maryland–College Park. He is the author of Weapons of Democracy: Propaganda, Progressivism, and American Public Opinion and the coeditor of The Oxford Handbook of Propaganda Studies.

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Filed under American History, American Studies, Politics, Popular Culture, Washington

Pope Francis inspired a “trust community”

Guest post by Irene S. Wu

The visit of Pope Francis to the United States reminded us what is good about the Church: the pull of an ancient creed, the call to a purpose bigger than ourselves, and the comfort of belonging to a caring community. There are many leaders of important institutions, indeed heads of state, who wish their visits would generate the same excitement.

Wu pope-francisThat Catholics welcomed the Pope’s visit is to be expected. That so many others shared their sentiments—Protestants, who in the olden days rebelled against the Catholic Church for one reason or another; others of competing faiths; and possibly a considerable contingent with no faith at all—is the surprise. This large crowd, this contending mix of people, is a trust community.

Trust communities are one in a continuum of social organizations. At one end are networks, which are largely nonhierarchical groups of loosely connected individuals. At the other end are institutions—like the Catholic Church—with hierarchies, formal rules and procedures, membership lists, budgets, and mission statements. In between are trust communities: groups with a shared cause or identity, held together by communication and exchange rather than common locale.

Trust communities can be small. Our towns, counties, sports associations, civic societies, and cultural appreciation clubs are trust communities that are a powerful draw on our time, attention, and loyalty. Also, there are the global trust communities—now more easily accessible to all of us than before—like the Olympics, the World Cup, the environmental movement, or the fight for human rights.

Trust communities are expansive and diverse. A nation’s trust community includes ministries and departments, the media who observe and report, the citizens who engage, the critics who complain, the rivals who compete, and the enemies who war against. Who is outside the trust community? Those who do not care, who pay no heed, and who are unaware. The challenge for many heads of state is to get attention and be relevant—in other words, to expand their trust community.

Trust communities are built on sharing stories and helping each other. Robert Putnam and Lewis Feldstein talked about the power of the personal narrative in building shared attitudes, values, and identities. Trading stories gives people a chance to discover commonality and build understanding. This can involve a visit in person, a timeline on Facebook, or even a Twitter feed. Talking and helping each other is also key. James Walker and Nobel Prize winner Elinor Ostrom used empirical experiments that showed communication substantially increased cooperation in many types of social dilemmas. Reciprocity builds trust.

In the places the Pope visited, preparation required a lot of coordination. Volunteers and community chiefs, religious leaders, and school children all pitched in to help. The process of preparation, the reciprocity and storytelling involved, strengthened the trust community. As the Pope continues to deliver his message, we will see how much social capital this trust community can build to propel forward the Church’s work.

The Pope’s visit was a reminder that money and guns are not the only source of power in the world. Ideas, sharing, cooperation, and trust are forces to contend with as well.

wuIrene S. Wu is the author of Forging Trust Communities: How Technology Changes Politics, published earlier this year by JHU Press. She teaches at Georgetown University and is an analyst at the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). The views she expresses are her own, and not of the FCC.

Use promo code “HDPD” to receive a 30% discount
when you order your copy of
Forging Trust Communities.

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Controversy, thy name be Smithsonian

Guest post by Robert C. Post

Who Owns America's Past? $20.97 (reg. $29.95)

The Smithsonian Institution is currently wrapped in controversy involving an exhibit at its National Museum of African Art, Conversations: African and African Amercian Artworks in Dialogue. Nobody doubts the exhibit’s noble purpose, displaying art with “the power to inspire.” But one-third of the works are from the collection of Bill Cosby and his wife Camille, and the Cosbys donated $716,000 “to assist with the cost.” Moreover, the exhibit is partly about Cosby himself, about his fame, his geniality. Near a display of quilts there is a quote about these quilts telling a story “of life, of memory, of family relationships.” To many people steeped in the 24-hour news cycle, this seems beyond irony.

But we must remember that the Smithsonian Institution was born 170 years ago amid controversy and no little irony. When the bequest of an eccentric Englishman, James Smithson, arrived in Washington with instructions to establish an institution “for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men,” it was not clear what he meant. And when the Smithsonian’s first secretary, Joseph Henry, steered the institution into scientific research, he provoked controversy. Others envisioned something quite different—a library, a university, most notably a museum. Henry was totally opposed. A museum, he warned, would squander resources, provoke more controversy, and, worst, render the institution “liable to be brought under direct political influence.”

He was right about that. The irony is that the public has long seen the Smithsonian as primarily a museum, or, rather, a museum complex. And there have been controversies aplenty. Some seemed as much personal as political. The Wright brothers were incensed when the Smithsonian assigned credit for the first “sustained free flight,” totally undeserved, to a man who had once been its secretary. Partisans of Alexander Graham Bell were terribly upset by an exhibit that seemed to deprive Bell of full credit for inventing the telephone, and they threatened to take the matter “to the public and to Congress.” Some controversies were wholly political. A few years ago, a Smithsonian secretary accepted a donation from one Ken Behring with the absurd contingency that there be a halt to exhibits that were “multicultural.” The Smithsonian, said Behring, must do “an American history museum.” Politicization materialized most famously in the 1990s when the National Air and Space Museum was forced to abort a planned exhibit of the Enola Gay, the bomber sent to destroy Hiroshima, along with horrific evidence of what happened on the ground. The airplane was displayed, the rest was not.

Perhaps more shameful in the long run have been episodes that librarians would see as akin to book burning. After the National Portrait Gallery staged Hide/Seek, an exhibit about same-sex intimacy, a video was removed when legislators threatened to “zero out” the Smithsonian’s budget, as had also been threatened with the Enola Gay/atomic bomb affair. Both times, there could be a plea of urgent necessity to capitulate; when an official remarked that “we have to be adept at communication,” he might better have said that “the institution must have its federal dollars or close its doors.” (70 percent of the budget is federal.)

But the Conversations controversy is different from others. No zeroing-out threats, but plenty of outrage. When the exhibit opened, an authorized biography of Cosby had just been published. It was being reviewed in the right places (in the Times Book Review as “wonderfully thorough”) just as Cosby’s rape allegations gained currency. Celebrities wanted their dust-jacket kudos deleted and a paperback was nixed, but there has been little pressure to remove the book from library shelves, to subject it to a figurative or perhaps literal burning. It’s been quite a different tale with the exhibit, with demands to “take it down.” Johnnetta Cole, the museum director and a close friend of the Cosbys, is devastated. So far, however, the institutional response has been that the show must go on, that appearing to celebrate a man accused of serial rape is preferable to “pulling” the exhibit as with the Hide/Seek video—and to harming artists with no responsibility for Cosby’s behavior. As a halfhearted response to critics, there is a sign outside the exhibit saying that the Smithsonian “in no way condones” this behavior, whatever it may have been.

This may be enough to carry the exhibit through to its scheduled closing in January, with no book burning, even in a figurative sense, as with the Hide/Seek video. While commending the Smithsonian’s decision “to stand by the exhibit on its artistic merits,” the Washington Post also expresses hope that the institution has “learned some lessons from this painful experience.” Perhaps it has, but looking back over the Smithsonian’s history, and looking to the emergent power of outsiders who claim a “stake” in the content of exhibits, I’d not be too sure.

Bob Post is the author of Who Owns America’s Past? The Smithsonian and the Problem of History, which was published by JHU Press. It details the controversies mentioned here and many others.

 

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Patriot (Day) games: exploring the fantasies surrounding 9/11

Guest post by John N. Duvall and Robert P. Marzec

duvallWhat’s happening for the 14th anniversary of 9/11? For one thing, there are a lot of Harley rides. The sixth item in a Google search for “14th anniversary of 9/11” informs you about the 2015 9/11 Memorial Ride Harley Ride starting in Knoxville, Tennessee, in order to “remember those who gave the ultimate sacrifice on September 11th, 2001.” It will kick of with a ceremony that “includes a flyover, ‘Taps,’ and a 21-gun salute” and end with a “concert that night and special priced meal deal at the Shed Smokehouse & Juke Joint.” Hot damn. But you don’t have to travel to Knoxville to ride in memory of 9/11. In Bay Village, Ohio, “on Sunday, September 6th, there will be a ‘Never Forget 9/11’ Ceremony and Processional Ride to honor and remember the families of the loved ones that lost their lives in the four hijacked airplanes, World Trade Center, Pentagon, and Shanksville.” The ceremony “will conclude with a 21-gun salute, ‘Taps,’ and ‘Amazing Grace.’ ” Similar rides will be held that day in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and even Vancouver, Canada, where a “45-minute service is dedicated to all those who perished on September 11th, 2001 and to recognize and thank all who serve each and every day to make the lives of Canadians and Americans safe and free.” BBQ to follow.

It’s not the Fourth of July, for sure, but 9/11 is about as good as Labor Day as an excuse to continue to enjoy summertime activities. Bikers are far from the only ones recreating in remembrance. There are plenty of golf tournaments happening that weekend with the announced goal of helping us remember 9/11. And on Friday, September 11, the Lincoln Center crowd can go hear Mozart’s “Requiem in D Minor.”

Whatever we “do in remembrance,” however, never produces historical thinking. Remembrance is about the creation of local community and non-reflexive national identity. This is why fiction about 9/11 (as well as our new book, Narrating 9/11, which examines this body of literature) matters. Embedded in this transformative historical moment, the best narratives focusing on the terrorist attacks provide nuanced mediations on not only the pain and trauma of the day itself but also on the United States’ Orwellian designated response (from preemptive war to extraordinary rendition and enhanced interrogation) that turned the American “homeland” into the planet. (If you think that’s rhetorical excess, look at chapter 12 of The 9/11 Commission Report, which declares “the American homeland is the planet,” which implies that the folksong made famous by Woody Guthrie really needs a makeover: “This land is our land / Your land is our land”). Occasionally, this fiction even anticipates our present reality. Jess Walter’s 2006 novel The Zero, for example, imagines a monster truck rally (“WE’RE TURNING VETERANS ARENA INTO A GIANT MUD PIT TO HONOR OUR DEAD HEROES!”) that exactly captures the dehistoricizing of 9/11 that contemporary instances of commodified recreational remembrance produce.

In all this “remembering,” a fundamental fact is forgotten; namely, that the terrorist attacks were immediately instrumentalized by the Bush Administration, which with the aid of Homeland Security’s orange and red alerts constantly reminded Americans to “be afraid, be very afraid.” Has all that much changed since George Bush signed the USA Patriot Act into law a month after the terrorist attacks? The Obama administration is bracing for the anniversary by ramping up security around the world. A year ago, former Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel said that US military forces were “operating at a high state of readiness” around the globe. Meanwhile, Current Defense Secretary Ashton Carter is in the process of extending this military vision in his new “force of the future” initiative (often referred to as simply “the force”—which may not have much resonance with the next generation of American’s until after the “force awakens” in theaters December 18th of this year). And President Obama’s National Security Strategy, in addition to listing traditional concerns such as “Homeland Security” and “Persistent Threats of Terrorism,” now lists “Climate Change” as a key security issue. As the essays we collected in Narrating 9/11 reveal, the expansion of militarized holds on everyday existence are on the rise. The reduction of the historical complexities surrounding 9/11 to memorialized recreation only further compromises and conceals our depoliticized relations to an event now officially shrouded in the holiday designated “Patriot Day.”

John N. Duvall is the Margaret Church Distinguished Professor of English at Purdue University. The editor of the journal MFS: Modern Fiction Studies, he has published extensively on modernist and contemporary fiction. Robert P. Marzec is an associate professor of English at Purdue University. The associate editor of MFS: Modern Fiction Studies, he is the author of An Ecological and Postcolonial Study of Literature: From Daniel Defoe to Salman Rushdie.  Together, they are the editors of Narrating 9/11: Fantasies of State, Security, and Terrorism, published this month by JHU Press.

Use promo code HDPD to receive a 30% discount when you order your copy of Narrating 9/11: Fantasies of State, Security, and Terrorism.

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Filed under American History, American Studies, Cultural Studies, Current Affairs, Journals, Politics

Meet us in San Francisco: American Political Science Association

If you are heading to San Francisco for the APSA annual meeting, be sure to stop by booth #500 to meet our staff, browse our latest publications, and and take advantage of special meeting discounts. On Thursday, September 3 at 3:45 p.m., we’ll host an APSA reception at the booth to toast the publication of Democracy in Decline?, edited by Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner. This title will be available at the special APSA meeting price of $15.00 for on-site sales (while copies last). Throughout the meeting and after, JHUP books will be available at a 30% discount when your use the discount code HEAG. Check out what’s new and recent on JHUP’s political science list!


Democracy in Decline?diamond15
edited by Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner, with essays by Francis Fukuyama, Robert Kagan, Larry Diamond, Thomas Carothers, Marc F. Plattner, Philippe C. Schmitter, Steven Levitsky, and Lucan Way, and a foreword by Condoleezza Rice

For almost a decade, Freedom House’s annual survey has highlighted a decline in democracy in most regions of the globe. While some analysts draw upon this evidence to argue that the world has entered a “democratic recession,” others dispute that interpretation, emphasizing instead democracy’s success in maintaining the huge gains it made during the last quarter of the twentieth century.

Discussion of this question has moved beyond disputes about how many countries should be classified as democratic to embrace a host of wider concerns about the health of democracy: the poor economic and political performance of advanced democracies, the new self-confidence and assertiveness of a number of leading authoritarian countries, and a geopolitical weakening of democracies relative to these resurgent authoritarians.

In Democracy in Decline?, eight of the world’s leading public intellectuals and scholars of democracy—Francis Fukuyama, Robert Kagan, Philippe C. Schmitter, Steven Levitsky, Lucan Way, Thomas Carothers, and editors Larry Diamond and Marc F. Plattner—explore these concerns and offer competing viewpoints about the state of democracy today. This short collection of essays is essential reading for anyone wanting to understand the latest thinking on one of the most critical questions of our era.

Join us at booth #500 on September 3 at 3:45 p.m. to toast the publication of Democracy in Decline? at a special APSA reception.


bitarDemocratic Transitions: Conversations with World Leaders, edited by Sergio Bitar and Abraham F. Lowenthal

National leaders who played key roles in transitions to democratic governance reveal how these were accomplished in Brazil, Chile, Ghana, Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines, Poland, South Africa, and Spain. Commissioned by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA), these interviews shed fascinating light on how repressive regimes were ended and democracy took hold.

In probing conversations with Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Patricio Aylwin, Ricardo Lagos, John Kufuor, Jerry Rawlings, B. J. Habibie, Ernesto Zedillo, Fidel V. Ramos, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, F. W. de Klerk, Thabo Mbeki, and Felipe González, editors Sergio Bitar and Abraham F. Lowenthal focused on each leader’s principal challenges and goals as well as their strategies to end authoritarian rule and construct democratic governance. Context-setting introductions by country experts highlight each nation’s unique experience as well as recurrent challenges all transitions faced.


The growing gap between the most affluent Americans and the rest of society is changing the country into one defined—more than almost any other developed nation—by exceptional inequality of income, wealth, and opportunity. This book reveals that an infrastructure of inequality, both open and hidden, obstructs the great majority in pursuing happiness, living healthy lives, and exercising basic rights. A government dominated by finance, corporate interests, and the wealthy has undermined democracy, stunted social mobility, and changed the character of the nation. In this tough-minded dissection of the gulf between the super-rich and the working and middle classes, Ronald P. Formisano explores how the dramatic rise of income inequality over the past four decades has transformed America from a land of democratic promise into one of diminished opportunity.


Other new and recent books from JHU Press:

Disease Diplomacy: International Norms and Global Health Security, by Sara E. Davies, Adam Kamradt-Scott, and Simon Rushton

Pain: A Political History, by Keith Wailoo

Education and Empowered Citizenship in Mali, by Jaimie Bleck
Weapons of Democracy: Propaganda, Progressivism, and American Public Opinion, by Jonathan Auerbach
Light It Up: The Marine Eye for Battle in the War for Iraq, by John Pettegrew


JHU Press Journals:

Journal of Democracy
Humans Rights Quarterly

The SAIS Review of International Affairs

 

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Filed under American Studies, Conferences, Current Affairs, Foreign Policy, Journals, Politics, Washington